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Tokyo somé-komon ( 東京染小紋 )


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When you go to a special party, what will you wear? One of recommendations should be, of course, kimono, which will attract other guests for the gorgeousness. However, you may think the patterns of kimono are too conspicuous to wear, especially if you are a novice of kimono. It certainly needs some courage to wear kimono at first. Is there not some kimono perfect to such people? Of course, yes. Let’s try Tokyo somé-komon.

What is Tokyo somé-komon?

It is a method to damask fabric with pattern paper. It is also called  “Edo-komon” and it is better to think that Tokyo somé-komon is the official name designated as one of the Japanese Traditional Crafts, and Edo-komon is a kind of brand name of that. “Komon” means “small patterns”, and as it suggests, this method provides so fine and small patterns on fabric that they are quite seen as plain at a glance; the kimono of Tokyo somé-komon is modest but is simultaneously attractive and prestigious enough as kimono.

The history of Tokyo somé-komon

The start of Tokyo somé-komon is the Muromachi era of Japan, approximately 14-16th century, but it was not until the Edo era, 17-19th century, that it became broadly known to people; many samurai in Edo began to put small patterns on their formal clothes, Kami-shimo. Most feudal domain had their unique pattern, Sadamé-komon, to put on as a crest of the clan. Meanwhile, the samurai in Edo era were not allowed to splurge, and therefore, they could not wear peacockish clothes. The fine patterns that look plain at first sight allowed them to enjoy wearing attractive dress secretly.

In the middle period of the Edo era, the pattern came to be loved by women as well, and many new patterns were given a birth to. Some of them were made as an auspicious pattern for play on words or lore. One of such examples is a pattern named “Hatsu-yumé”, which means the first dream of the New Year in Japanese. It has Mt. Fuji, hawks and eggplants on the pattern, for a lore says that these three are auspicious if you see in the hatsu-yumé.

In the Meiji era, the middle period of 19th century to the early 20th century, samurai became de facto extinct, for the Meiji government abandoned the social class; therefore, Kami-shimo also became obsolete. In addition to these change, the trend of the nation was toward Westernization and many people preferred to wear such clothes of the West. However, the small patterns once loved by samurai survived this difficulty as a pattern for ceremonial kimono for ladies.

In these days, the kimono of Tokyo somé-komon is mainly seen at wedding parties, Japanese tea ceremonies, special dinners, concerts and so on. On the other hand, it is true that more and more people are becoming unaware of the beauty of kimono now, so some people make something other than kimono with Tokyo somé-komon, such as scarf.

What makes Tokyo somé-komon so exquisite?

As mentioned above, the patterns of Tokyo somé-komon is so fine that it’s almost plain. For example, one of such patterns, named “Goku-zamé”, has as many as 800 to 1,000 dots inside a 3-cm square. How can this be possible?

Tokyo somé-komon is the combination of making the pattern paper and dying fabric with the paper, both of which require exquisite skills to accomplish; this ignited the spirit of competition of the craftsmen in the Edo era. Kata-ya, the maker of pattern paper, strived to make so fine pattern paper that Somé-ya, the dyer with the pattern paper, can’t well handle. At the same time, Somé-ya endeavored to make full use of such pattern paper, as if saying, “the pattern is too easy to dye, can’t you make more intricate one?” This chain of competition and outdoing each other rendered Tokyo somé-komon one-of-a-kind pattern of kimono.

However, too many craftsmen have gone out of the business so far, some people say. Tokyo somé-komon, the perfect combination of two greatest skills, definitely requires the both experts. Now, one of remaining Somé-ya says, “These days, the quality of pattern paper became less good than before. I hope that the technology should be brought down to the next generation.”

When to wear Tokyo somé-komon?

Actually, kimono of komon are generally not good to wear at formal events. When you wear kimono at such events, you should make sure the pattern of the kimono should not be upside down. Many “komon” patterns do not have upside nor downside, so this is not suitable as clothes for ceremonial event. However, because of the history mentioned above, Tokyo somé-komon is exclusively allowed to put on at such events. On the whole, the more formal the party is, the finer the pattern should be, for the finer the pattern is, the more formal and prestigious it is.

One thing you should remember is that there is another Tokyo somé-komon brand, Tokyo osharé-komon. This line produces creative patterns for much more people, so most of them are not good for formality.

How to wear Tokyo somé-komon?

In order to look nice in Tokyo somé-komon, what you should consider is what color you should wear. But, there are various colors in Tokyo somé-komon. What color should we choose first?

All of all, the color you should wear is the one you want to. Or, you can also choose the obi to fasten your waist first. If you choose the obi of the color similar to your favorite Tokyo somé-komon, your style will be chic. On the other hand, choosing the one of the opposite color will make you more flowery and conspicuous.

If you are completely at a loss about what to choose, the modern trend is pastel-colored one with modest(-like) pattern. Such kimono is perfect for many occasions, including some special parties or formal events. So, how about wearing Tokyo somé-komon and attracting other guests at your next special party? They will ask you, “Your plain kimono is so nice,” and you should say, “Actually this is not quite plain. This is called ‘Tokyo somé-komon, and you can see the fine patterns at a closer look. Will you?” Oh, you have a good excuse to get closer to an attractive person, don’t you?


調べよう日本の伝統工業 3関東の伝統工業

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Murayama Oshima Tsumugi ( 村山大島紬 )



When it comes to talking about kimono, the history and variations, however, often seem to elude us: we tend to only talk about their appearance at first glance or about the rareness. For example, so few people (including Japanese people!) understand the difference between “Honba Oshima Tsumugi” and “Murayama Oshima Tsumugi”, both of which have very intricate and beautiful design and sleek texture. Well, this time, let’s put a spotlight on “Murayama Oshima Tsumugi”, famous and exquisite cloth of kimono.

What is “Oshima Tsumugi”?

As you have noticed, both of the cloth mentioned above has the same letters, “Oshima Tsumugi”, which indicates the cloth named “Oshima Tsumugi” has two kinds of that. In order to talk about Murayama one, we have to look at Honba one first, actually.

“Oshima” means “big island” in Japanese in general and “Amami Oshima” in particular here. Amami Oshima is located in Kyusyu district in Japan and the blue sea that almost melts into the sky is so beautiful. It is said that the island is the closest island to the heaven, and the people there are so kind. Many visitors repeat all the same phrase: “It was like I was in the seventh. I will visit there again for sure.”

But I digress. Splendid materials to knit wearing were found in this island; so making clothes was one of their lifeworks and the clothes were their casual dress. However, in 1720, a local government in that time ordered them not to wear the native clothes, for the officials of the government can exclusively wear them. This was the start of the export of “Oshima Tsumugi” to the main island of Japan.

After landing on the main island, “Oshima Tsumugi” became popular for the beauty and high quality, and in 1870, many people in the main island of Japan also came to wear and enjoy the unique design, although it was considered as luxury then. Around in 1920, the people in the main island started produce their cloth, which is very similar to “Oshima Tsumugi”—this is what we call “Murayama Oshima Tsumugi” for the resemblance and the name of the place where the material is obtained. By the way, “Honba” means “real”, “authentic” or “bona fide”; does it mean that “Murayama Oshima Tsumugi” is a fake? Of course not. No way.

Own story of Murayama Oshima Tsumugi

In contrast to the “luxuriness” of Honba Oshima Tsumugi, Murayama Oshima Tsumugi flourished as inexpensive cloth for casual dress, which is somehow ironically the original purpose of Honba Oshima Tsumugi. In 1948, an association for Murayama Oshima Tsumugi was founded and it strived to be recognized as a brand. During Japan’s economic boom after WW2, the demand for Murayama Oshima Tsumugi as inexpensive casual dress was pretty high; however, in the process, much more inexpensive cloth made in Korea for kimono, which is so-called Korean Oshima, emerged and was easily replaced with Murayama Oshima Tsumugi. In 1980, the population of the people who manufactured Murayama Oshima Tsumugi dropped terribly and the many wholesalers ceased handling it.

After the shock, some people got together to restore and preserve the beauty of Murayama Oshima Tsumugi. As their familiar dress, Murayama Oshima Tsumugi developed in a different way from Honba Oshima Tsumugi. One of the characteristics of Murayama Oshima Tsumugi is the variation of unique patterns, which was possible as a result of the combination of many other techniques in the main island of Japan, and such an own character of the cloth attracted many people enough to keep the culture to live even today. Now Murayama Oshima Tsumugi is alive as beautiful and precious cloth for kimono that represents Japanese historical culture; yes, Murayama Oshima Tsumugi eventually followed all the same way of its parent, Honba Oshima Tsumugi. Now, Murayama Oshima Tsumugi is not a fake or mimic of Honba Oshima Tsumugi: it is another Oshima Tsumugi.

The difference between the two Oshima Tsumugi

As mentioned above, Murayama Oshima Tsumugi and Honba Oshima Tsumugi are completely different cloth, but the appearances of the two Oshima Tsumugi resemble each other so close that it is difficult to distinguish the two; however, if you look into them much more close enough, you’ll find the difference: the seam. The seam of Murayama Oshima Tsumugi looks straight, whereas that of Honba Oshima Tsumugi does the shape of T or the sign of plus, “+”.

Meanwhile, the cloth of Honba Oshima Tsumugi has the certificate tag, whose motif is a globe or flag (which depends on the place of production of the cloth). When you buy cloth that looks like some kind of Oshima Tsumugi, check the tag.

In addition to these differences, the cloth of Honba Oshima Tsumugi is not used for making an “ensemble” of kimono for woman. It means, if you see an ensemble of some parts of kimono for women, which looks Oshima Tsumugi, it must be Murayama Oshima Tsumugi. However, it may be possible to order such kimono of Honba Oshima Tsumugi now.

The current Murayama Oshima Tsumugi

Murayama Oshima Tsumugi started as a popular edition of Honba Oshima Tsumugi, but it has developed its own way of evolving since then. After the clothes of Japanese people became westernized and the preciousness of kimono began to be rediscovered, Murayama Oshima Tsumugi is getting as precious. If you love kimono, it may be a good time to be particular about the cloth of your kimono.

Aren’t you interested in kimono that much and you feel yourself out of the picture? If so, you should visit some skillful tailors; they may tailor your suits or coats with Oshima Tsumugi! The durability of kimono is of course due to its cloth; so the coat and suit made of Oshima Tsumugi must last forever. The patterns on the surface must attract many people around you as well.

Now, the two Oshima Tsumugi are alive as one of the most prestigious cloth of Japanese kimono. When you order your kimono or suit, you should ask: “Excuse me, is Oshima Tsumugi available today?


  • 日本の伝統的織もの
  • 染めもの日本の歴史100
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Honba Kihachijo ( 本場黄八丈 )

If one of your friends wears a yellow suit, you might well think that it is too flamboyant unless he or she is so glamorous an icon of fashion. However, if what they wear is yellow kimono, your friend must be attractive without doubt. So, what if the yellow kimono were even special one? Honba Kihachijo is such really special cloth of kimono. The “Ki” in “Kihachijo” means yellow, not energy; well, it is made by very energetic people, though.


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What is the yellow of Honba Kihachijo?

The homeland of Honba Kihachijo lies 300 km of Tokyo; the island is named “Hachijo-jima”. There are abundant of tropical plants, including palm trees and hibiscus in the island far from the main island of Japan, and you can enjoy many seasonal flowers in the colorful landscape. However, what they use to make the beautiful yellow fabric is not such a tropical plant; actually, it’s a kind of almost nameless weeds, which grow even in the main island of Japan. This is called “Kobuna-gusa”. They found this weed dye beautifully yellow, and cultivate this plant as one of their precious treasure.

The yellow from Kobuna-gusa, which the islander calls “Hachijo Kariyasu”, is said to last for 3 generations, and the more you wear and love the yellow, the yellower and more beautiful the kimono becomes. Of course, the strings to weave the fabric are also strong enough to last almost forever.

The history of Honba Kihachijo

Hachijo-jima was thought to be “the island where even a bird does not perches”, which means the nature of the island was so wild. However, the islanders were originally great at making cloth, for they had communicated well with the people who came from the main island. In 14th century, they began to offer their fabric to the tycoon in the main island. Because of the perfection of their fabric, even many biggest figures from the main island tried to control the manufactures.

In early 17 century, the Edo era in Japan, they began to offer their beautiful yellow fabric to the tycoon, the Tokugawa. This offer had lasted for more than 300 years, during which they are thought to have made almost 300,000 Kihachijo.

By the way, yellow was thought to be a purifying color in the Edo era. So, many doctors preferred the color to put himself in. On the other hand, the color was also the best clothes among low-class samurai or such women.

But I digress. Now, what made Honba Kihachijo famous? It was a play of Japanese ballad drama, “Joruri”. In the play named “Koimusume Mukashi Hachijo”, the yellow kimono of the island was used as the costume: the dawn of skyrocketing popularity of Honba Kihachijo. Actually, the term, “Kihachijo”, used to refer to general yellow-stripped or -checkered fabric, but by the popularity of the yellow, the term came to refer to only the fabric made in the island. Also, the name of the island, “Hachijo-jima”, is derived from this “Kihachijo”. Yes, this yellow fabric saved and established the whole island indeed.

Various Kihachijo, including not yellow ones

If you look for Honba Kihachijo in market, you rarely find the plain yellow fabric of Honba Kihachijo. This is because it is so difficult to dye not blocky with Kobuna-gusa that the fabric of Honba Kihachijo is mainly striped or checkered. These patterns are one of the reasons why many people love Honba Kihachijo: it’s modern and so fashionable.

Actually, there are Kihachijo, whose main color is not yellow in spite of the name: they are mainly brown or black. The ways of dying of these two fabrics are also different, and the black one is another special fabric for the method. In this case, the strings to weave the fabric were dyed by a plant, ” Castanopsis sieboldii” in the scientific name, and then by mud. Through dipping into mud, the tannin of the plant and the iron of mud are conbined to dye the strings black. This black fabric is called “Kurohachijo” (Kuro means black, as you guess), and it is all the more precious because it takes a long time to make one for the time-consuming ingredients and method. However, here is one thinkg to note. There is the other “Kurohachijo”, which is made in Itsuka-ichi, Tokyo. If you look for the former one, you should ask for “Kurohachijo” of “Kihachijo” (Confusing?).

By the way, the “Honba” in “Honba Kihachijo” means “authentic” or “bona fide”. Is it another Kihachijo? Yes, it is. It is the one made in Akita prefecture; this Kihachijo is dyed by rugosa roses, not by Kobuna-gusa. Of course, it does not mean this Akita Kihatchijo is a fake. Don’t get it wrong.

How to be fashionable in the yellow kimono

Perhaps, you may well think: Okay, fine. But yellow kimono? It’s too vivid! Maybe you are true. Yellow and checkered (or striped) kimono must be conspicuous and some of you may feel it embarrassing. However, Honba Kihachijo is too good to miss. How should we wear this historical and traditional masterpiece? The answer is “Obi”.

Obi is a Japanese belt or band to wrap and squeeze your waist on Kimono. Choosing right obi is totally necessary to be fashionable in Honba Kihachijo.

For example, if you choose brown or black one, your total figure will be less conspicuous and chic. With red or green one, the style will be much more eye-catching, so it must be perfect in speech or when you stand in front of big audience to receive their attention.

If you want to wear it in Western style, it may be possible to use the fabric to tailor your suit. Of course, the yellow-checkered suit may be perfect for very limited people, but how about making your vest with this fabric for instance? Imagine you have vivid yellow in your black or gray jacket. Now, you have to think about the tie and handkerchief to go with. There are so many things to perfect your style, but it is a part of amusement to be fashionable, isn’t it?


日英対訳 日本の歴史100

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Tama ori ( 多摩織 )


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Many conservative people insist that a suit should be the best wearing to go to their business appointment and also expect others to follow “suit”. However, more and more people are becoming fond of expressing themselves through their fashion and the way they are, and what to wear the day is their most important issue for them. If you are one of such fashionable people but watched carefully by conservative business partners, one of your options is wear Tama-ori.

What’s Tama-ori?

Tama-ori is one of traditional manufacturing of fabrics in Japan, mainly practiced in Hachioji, Tokyo. You may well think, “Traditional manufacturing of fabrics in Japan? I can’t wear kimono for my business meeting.” Don’t worry; even if your client is not tolerant to your kimono style, Tama-ori is still your perfect option. Actually, Tama-ori is historically recognized as “natty dress for such men” and applied to making a necktie, scarf and stole now.

The natty history of Tama-ori

Tama-ori is not a name for one certain method to weave a fabric; it is the collective term for 5 weaving methods developed near Tokyo: Omeshi-ori, Tsumugi-ori, Fu-tsu-ori, Kawari-tsuzuré, and Mojiri-ori.

The hometown of Tama-ori, Hachioji, has been called “City of mulberry” for a long time. Mulberry was feed for silkworms in the region, which produce the greatest cocoon for the fabric. Because of the convenient location near Tokyo (or Edo, in the time), the people practiced and developed the method to make greater fabrics according to the need of the city people. On the other hand, they also made efforts to preserve the traditional methods, and this gave a birth to the unique fabric made by the eclectic mixed method of the old and the new. They called “Tama-ori” some historical methods of weaving then.

As most of the population in Edo were male, Tama-ori was loved as the brand of natty gentlemen. Although it has many fans of ladies, of course, this historical background turned Tama-ori into the lasting fabric for gentlemen even to today.

Five weavings of Tama-ori

Now, let’s delve into the 5 weaving methods. The first one is Omeshi-ori.

The feature of Omeshi-ori is its ruck. This special crease is called “Shibo” in the Japanese technical term. The yarn is twisted 3,000 times per 1 meter, and clockwise-twisted one and anticlockwise-twisted one are used alternately to make the ruck. This is the most famous weaving of Tama-ori.

The second one is Tsumugi-ori”, whose surface is lumpy. This lumpiness comes from the special yarn used. One yarn to make Tsumugi-Ori is called “Tama-ito”, which is obtained by the combination of two cocoons of as many silkworms to be striated: the other yarn is called “Tsumugi-ito”, and this is made from the floss silk of silkworms.

The third one is “Fu-tsu-ori”: this weaving is two-layered, and the ground color of the surface is the main color of the back. It means, you can enjoy this weaving reversibly.

Kawari-tuzuré has a really intricate design. This weaving method uses many and as colorful yarns to produce the greatest pattern on the surface.

The last one, Mojiri-ori, is almost transparent. No, not exactly transparent, but this weaving dare to leave some rooms between yarns; therefore, it gives clearness and transparency.

The modern Tama-ori

As mentioned above, Tama-ori has been recognized as gentlemen’s special fabric since the Edo era (17th century), and this image is still true today; many Tama-ori manufacturers weave neckties, which are mainly for business”men”, to venture to say. Tama-ori neckties started to be wove in the Taisho era (from 1912-1926), which is relatively recent, but the techniques and designs loved in Edo were wholly employed to make the modern one.

Of course, in these days, Tokyo is recognized as one of the most fashion-savvy city, where many international clothing brands hold the exhibition of their collection, as held in Paris of France or Milan of Italy. Such sensitive feeling to what we call fashion is also applied to Tama-ori products, but at the same time, they never forget the history and tradition built in Tama-ori. The eclectic mixture of the old and the new is never lost.

In this regard, Tama-ori has two brands in the main line. One is “Kuwa-no-miyako (桑の都)” and the other “Mulberry City”. Actually, Mulberry City is translated into Kuwa-no-miyako in Japanese. Mulberry is kuwa, and City miyako.

Kuwa-no-miyako was named after an old Japanese poem which depicted the landscape of the hometown of this fabric, and this line produces mainly Japanese wearing items, like kimono. On the other hand, Mulberry City produces Western wearing items, like neckties and scarfs of Tama-ori for more daily use. Daily use? Yes, it’s more affordable and inexpensive to get such accessories than to purchase traditional kimono.

Who should pass down this culture to the future?

The next generation should be nurtured. Some artisans of Tama-ori, while weaving greatest neckties, teach children at nearby schools as volunteer. This experience may produce the next master of Tama-ori, who will succeed this legend.

However, of course, it is so important for us to support the activity and culture like this by wearing the products. All we have to do is to wear the special necktie for our next business meeting, which will impress our clients and may drive them into purchasing their one.

Or, you can even order your original necktie through the official site. You can make your own one with your name on it, or it is also possible to give such a one-of-a-kind (literally) necktie to somebody special.

If you are the president of your company, it’s also so nice an idea to give your workers the special necktie with the company logo on it as a token of your appreciation for them. The appreciating speech should be like this: “Thank you for your all hard effort on the company! I have a special present for you all, Tama-ori Necktie! Tama-ori is Japanese historical weaving of the eclectic mixture of yesterday and tomorrow, and our company also should cherish yesterday and look forward to tomorrow like Tama-ori! Cheers!”


日英対訳 日本の歴史100

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1. The “Attus (アットゥシ)”

The “Attus” are traditional clothes of Ainu people(アイヌ民族). Ainu are the people or ethnic groups that has been living in the north Island near Japanese main land, Hokkaido(北海道), Kurile(千島列島) and Sakhalin Islands(樺太島). Their hunting and gathering ways of life have gotten many scholarly attentions in many academic fields for long period of time.
Winter time, those regions become incredibly cold. The snow start covering the land from November and the severe blizzard blows, Ainu have been long facing those vast snowy fields.
Ainu have been wearing Attus clothes for long time. But not like the past centuries, those traditional Attus wearing Ainu people cannot be seen anywhere in Japan. They have been mixed with immigrants from main lands, and spread throughout many parts of Northern regions. In Hokkaido only, there believed to be higher population density in the Shiretoko peninsula(知床半島), the north eastern lumpy parts of Hokkaido.
Remarkably, the Attus varies much not only by base materials but also by regions and designs. The materials varies from the animal skin(獣皮), fish skin(魚皮), to bark fibers(樹皮), glass fibers(草皮)and cottons(木綿).

2. Varietal Uniqueness

After arrival the cotton by the cargo ships which sailed the Japan Sea during the Edo period, the variety of “Attus” were flourished. The Varieties are so many, and their categories are still under debates.
Varietal uniqueness of Attus starts from the garment of animal skins. This include animal skins of Japanese bear, dear, dogs, seals, sea otter(ラッコ), pacific salmon(鮭), and a trout(鱒). The bark and glass fibers are also interesting. This includes elm spp(ニレ科), linden, Japanese elm, and nettles(イラクサ).
After arrival of cotton, the many Varieties of Attus arose. In The middle Edo era(江戸時代中葉), when Matsumae(松前藩), the one federal domain dealt trading with Ainu, shipped the cotton clothes. Since the cottons are suitably warm in those cold regions, and quickly distributed to Hokkaido Ainu regions. The amount of exported cotton clothes drastically increased by time, and they were spread out. The remnant cotton Attus are more than others in number. The followings 4 catgories are those different Attus based on cotton usage.

  • Chinjiri(チンヂリ). The Chinjiri was the name given for the Attus garments with embroidery. The clothes embroidered just by few colored cottons applique.
  • Chikarakarape(チカラカラぺ). Chikarakarape was the name given for the Attus garments with embroidered black and dark blues applique on Cotton garments.
  • Kaparamipu (カパラミプ) . Kaparamipu was the name given for the Attus garments with wide white cut-out appliques. The white covers most of garments. They were used for cemetery and rituals.
  • Lunpe (ルンぺ). Lumpe was the name given for the Attus garments with narrow strips of applique cloth patchwork. The narrow striped appliques are sewn around the front opening of garments.

The basic style of Ainu was with those half-length Japanese coat type Attus with other Accessories which include aprons(前掛け), hand protectors(手甲), gaiters(脚絆), sword carrying sashes(刀鞘), head band(鉢巻), waist sashes(腰帯).

3. Weaving(紡織), Applique(アップリケ), and Embroidery techniques(刺繍法)

The shape of Attus is just as a half-length Japanese coat type, but there are many steps of making. This includes 1). The fiber collection and its breaching, 2). Warping and weaving, 3). Sewing, Appliques, and Embroidery. The following processes are the guidance for the bark fiber type traditional Attus making described by Yoshimoto in “The Clothes of the Ainu People”.

1). Collection of fibers.

To make the traditional Attus, the bark of elm tree spp (オヒョウ) is used. The best time for collecting elm barks come after the rainy seasons of early summer when there are much more waters inside the barks. Then peeling the barks and soaked into the nearby ponds for approximately 10 days. After 10 days of soaking, the darts and impurities would wash off by clear water in the river and several layers would be peeled until the layers become one single thin sheet. Those thin layer then would be dried until they are breached by sunshine. Eventually the color of peeled thin bark layer become colorless white.

2). Warping & weaving

The dried thin layers then would be stripped by fingers to single lines. The end of obtained lines are tied together, and the line become long strings. Those long strings are then wound to the wooden pole and cloth beam, so that the lines are ready to be woven. Walking again and again those wooden poles and cloth beam. After setting up the warp line, the heddle(綜絖) is set, and then start weaving with loom(織機).

3). Sewing, Applique, Embroidery.

The lines are straightly woven to the fabrics, and those fabrics are then cut and sew together for basic shapes of Attus (half-length Japanese coat type). After the shape of Attus are sewn, then other dark woven cotton clothes are cut into the desired figure and sewn together as applique. The potions of applique is then decorated by embroidery.
Attus registered as Japanese traditional craft is called Nibutani Attus(二風谷アットゥシ)where the few products of Attus craftsmen are still produced in small scale.



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Edo Karakami ( 江戸からかみ )


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The history of paper is so old and this invention enabled us to write down or paint on what we want to leave for the future. Among many kinds of paper, the Japanese one (called washi) is one of the most durable paper and used for many purpose; it’s said that washi lasts for a millennium, and many historical records on washi are quite readable and thus conduce to many discoveries about the old days of Japan. Actually, the Japanese currency is also made of special washi, and even laundering does not damage the currency too badly. (Of course, I mean, the case that you should misplace your money in your pocket till washing!)

Some people, however, rather looked into washi itself and made it a kind of art. This kind of washi is used for interior decorations and other splendid materials. Edo Karakami is one of such special washi.


Karakami is originally from China, which was “paper with some pattern on”, and the root of Japanese Karakami can be traced back to as old as 8th century.

The modern definition of karakami is “processed paper” which is used to make fusuma, or a Japanese removable sliding door. This partition can separate two rooms and also turn them into one big room when it’s removed.

A fusuma has washi on it, instead of other materials such as glass. This washi has great patterns on the surface; so fusuma are not only functional but also enjoyable to watch. You may well think that Japanese people use a big picture as a sliding door, perhaps. Karakami is the special washi for this purpose, and Edo Karakami is the most special one among the special washi.

Kyo Karakami and Edo Karakami

Karakami has two kinds in it, actually: one is Edo Karakami, and the other Kyo Karakami. What’s the difference?

In the history, Kyo Karakami was rather expensive and something for upper classes. They used top-notch materials to make the washi, which was loved by many Japanese aristocrats. In the early days, few people appreciated the beauty of Karakami, but the Edo Era (17th century), in which the population of Japan skyrocketed, saw more and more people come to demand it, leading to the increased supply; this gave a birth to new manufacturers of Karakami. Edo Karakami is one of such relatively newer method to make washi.

By contrast to Kyo Karakami, which was mainly used to embellish fusuma more decoratively, Edo Karakami was something for ordinary people. Thus, the technique to make Edo Karakami was preferably preserved by many people. The unique patterns of Edo Karakami also attracted European people, and some masterpieces are kept in some museums in such countries: Alcock Collection and Siebold Collection are some examples of them.

Ebb and flow of Edo Karakami

In the Meiji Era, the manufacturers in Tokyo (which was previously called Edo) came to lead the fusuma industry by their washi, but this prosperity was thwarted by the notorious Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923. This culprit of the death and loss of almost 143,000 people also caused many fire disasters, depriving them of as many as 4,000 or 5,000 printing wood blocks to put a pattern on paper.

After this catastrophe, many people endeavored to restore the printing blocks and some of them came back then, but the Great Tokyo Air Raids in 1945 also devastated this industry almost to death.

However, even after undergoing this pandemonium, Edo Karakami did not get extinct. In 1991, some artisans of Edo Karakami got together to realize the recovery of Edo Karakami and solicited the Japanese government to support them. As a result, in 1992, Edo Karakami was designated as one of the traditional arts of Tokyo, followed by the designation as one of the Traditional Crafts by the Minister for Economy, Trade and Industry; then in 2007, it was certified as a “local brand” by Patent Agency. Now, Edo Karakami came back as one of the greatest arts that Japan is proud of.

How to make Edo Karakami?

As mentioned above, putting patterns on washi to make Edo Karakami requires printing blocks of wood. However, it’s not just “stamping”. They spread some pigment on the block and then place washi “onto” it, not vice versa. Then, they rub the sheet by hand to make the thickness of the color perfect and beautiful. Various materials are used for this pigment and some looks like the beauty of pearl and others like Japanese picture of monochrome. Moreover, the variation of Edo Karakami is not only colorful or monochrome: there are “colorless” ones.

In this case, one example is doing the same process mentioned above without any pigment, making the pattern visible in relief. They sometimes dye this relief to make it more beautiful. Other example of this colorless Karakami is doing the same process but by something hard and solid, not by hand. This technique refines the surface of the sheet and makes it shine, which looks as if they painted the pattern in wax.

On the other hand, some people knead washi to add cloth-like texture to it. In this case, they don’t use printing blocks.

The modern Edo Karakami

Edo Karakami is traditionally used for fusuma, which requires Japanese-styled housing layout. So, do we have to give up to add the zest of Edo Karakami if the house is well western-styled? The answer is NO.

Nowadays, you can find many articles of Edo Karakami, which are perfect to decorate your room. Just placing these products in your room will make Japanesque atmosphere there. Or, it’s also a good idea to just put Edo Karakami on your wall or ceiling.

In addition to this, Edo Karakami is retrieving the original usage of paper now — writing and painting on. Actually, some artists, especially Japanese-picture artists, are appreciating the quality of washi of Edo Karakami for the texture and durability, and they preferably choose this paper to make their pieces last long. Likewise, you can find letter paper made of Edo Karakami available, which is perfect for writing to somebody special for you. How about enveloping your words with Japanese historical texture?


江戸からかみ─その歴史的背景と多彩な展開 久米康生 東京松屋

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Miyako Jofu ( 宮古上布 )


( image from : )

Miyako Jofu in general

Miyako Island(宮古島) is located 326km south-west of main island Okinawa. 40 thousand people resides there nowadays.
The “Miyako jofu(宮古上布)” implies high-quality plain-woven hemp cloth that have been developed throughout the history of Miyako Island. Contemporaly, “Miyako Jofu” becomes one of the qualified traditional hemp clothes in Japanese archipelago.
There are regional differences among the Okinawan traditional hemp cloths. Compared to the Yaeyama Jofu(about 75km south-west of Miyako Island, 八重山上布)which dyed with red rusted color, “Miyako Jofus” are dyed with indigo and are more dark blue color.
It is woven by ramie (芋麻). The comfort and coolness of “Miyako Jofu” made by ramie were highly valued in the summer time. It has once said that people would never desire to have other outfits once you dressed with “Miyako jofu”.
The origin of the “Miyako Jofu” was believed to be around 16th century when Ryukyu kingdom had tributary system with Chinese Min Dynasty. One of the Islander, Shimoji (下地) shipwrecked before he reached to the annual greeting to the King of Ryukyu. After lost at the sea, he eventually arrived at coast of China. Fortunately, he found the tributary ships to go home with. On the way back to Okinawa, the ship encountered devastating hurricanes, and without Shimoji’s nimble work, the ship would have wrecked again. All the passengers of tributaries made their home. The King was surprised to hear that news, and happily gave him entitled position in the Kingdom. After this incidents, his wife, Inaishi (稲石) wanted to show appreciation to the King in return. Inaishiin waved clothes with most delicate manner. It was beautiful blown color with stripe. The king was fully surprised again when he wore it. This Jofu was believed to be the origin of “Miyako Jofu”.

Under the strict feudal controls

As scholar discussed, the development of “Miyako Jofu(宮古上布)” would have other destiny if feudal controls of Satsuma, one of the strong feudal domain of Tokugawa Bakufu did not happened in the past.
After main islands of Okinawa invaded by Satusma, the Miyako Islanders also went under their influences. As other Okinawan people, Miyako Islander also experienced two governmental controls.
Especially, the poll taxes to Miyako Islanders are crucial at that time. Because of its high quality, Satsuma requested “Miyako jofu” as to pay. The record shows that out of 3367 koku (app 60,000kg, 1 koku石=app 180L), the 2216 Koku were from cloth fabric including the “Miyako Jofu” Because of this unreasonable demand, all females under 15 to 50 had to joins yarn-making (製糸), dyeing (染色), and weaving (製織) in the villages.
The dedication of the taxes took place on March each year. After the strict inspection by Satsuma’s bureaucrat, only the ones that reached to the quality that Satsuma requested were accepted. People broke down crying at the moment of the judge. The textile dedicated to the high nobles, the skilled islanders were chosen by villagers and forced to wave every day from morning until night.
Among the Okinawans, the colorful outfits are more favored. In contrast, Satsuma requested darker color, indigo dyed “Miyako jofu” because Satsuma exports to the main land where indigo is more favored.
Thus, most elegant textiles in Okinawan Island has undergone these sorrowful histories. Even though the end of Edo Bakufu era and new modernized Meiji government took place, this poll tax had lasted for 36 years after.

Miyako Jofu as a Textile

1). Ramie Fabric(原材料, 芋麻)

The basic material, yarn for “Miyako jofu” is ramie, one of the hemp. Ramies plants are cultivated throughout the Miyako Island. They are collected 4-5 times a year. Within 30-40 days they grow. When they become 1.5m in height, they are cut down. After collection from the field, they are washed with abalones shells. With abalone shells, fibers can be smoothly collected. After collection of fibers of ramie, they are dried in the shade.

2). Spinning(糸績み)

Dried fibers are torn with nails and fingers until they get to the thickness of hairs. Spining ramie fibers into thread are all done by hand. Warps(経糸) are made of 2 yarns. Wefts(横糸)are made of one yarn. Spun yeans are twisted by spinning wheels. After wefts are made, warping of warps are done (warping is the process that winding the warps by required length, density, and order).

3). Design and Kasurijime(図案と絣締め)

The basic design are drawn down to the graphic paper. The first, the whole design of “Miyako jofu” is decided. Since the whole design is made of small patterns or partial design. The small “Miyako jofu” made up of 6 repetition of a part as well as 121 in the largest ones.
After designs are decided, the warped yarns are washed by bleach. After bleaching and drying, the warped yarns are tightly woven. The method is called Kasurishime(絣締め). The purpose is to protect portion of yarns. To do so, the portion of yarns would not be dyed in the next process.

4). Dyeing(染色)

The Dyeing by Indigo. The basic material is Ryukyu indigo. The caustic soda, awamori (Okinawan distilled sprit), brown sugars are added. Ferment for a week or two. After fermentation, the color of dye become greenish. Dyed and dried under sunshine for a day. Repeated dyeing 15-16 times.

5). Weaving(製織)

After dyeing and drying, the yarns are woven crosswise. Ship shaped shuttle(杼) is used to weave warps(経糸)and Wefts(横糸). Even skilled worker can weave 20-30 cm a day. The whole roll can be made in about 3-4 months.

6). Washing and inspection (洗濯加工と検査)

Washed off the dirt in the hot boiled water. After dried, strengthen the fabric by wooden hammer 20,000-25,000 times. After inspection, the roll of “Miyako jofu”, one of the four traditional high quality hemp clothes in Japan archipelago would be in the markets.



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Edo Kimekomi Ningyo

Throughout the history of mankind, what represents human beings has attracted people; one of such pieces is a doll. Edo Kimekomi Ningyo is a kind of dolls Japanese artisans make by hand.


Like that of other countries, the Japanese history of dolls starts as an artifice to use in rituals. As the time went by, however, such usages of dolls have gone and begun to be loved as a daily article or toy. The completion of the culture of Japanese dolls can be seen in the Edo era, in which Edo Kimekomi Ningyo was born; therefore, Edo Kimekomi Ningyo can be said to be one of the original dolls in the Japanese history.

As you may know, Edo means the old name of Tokyo, and Ningyo means “doll” in Japanese. So, what is “Kimekomi”? Kimekomi’s original form is a verb, “Kimekomu”, which means, “Fit something into something else perfectly”. When you watch old Edo Kimekomi Ningyo, you will notice that their wearing is put into a gap on the “skin” of the doll. Yes, this explains: their wearing is fitted perfectly into the skin; therefore, they are called “Edo Kimekomi Ningyo”.

The origin of Edo Kimekomi Ningyo

Edo Kimekomi Ningyo was born during 1736 to 1741, in Kyoto. A man, Tadashige Takahashi, made dolls during work breaks then. The material was willow, which was also material for articles to use in festivals. Tadashige was a subordinate of a shinto priest, so he got some cloth of the uniform of shinto priests to make his dolls “wear” it. As the willow was growing up around the river named “Kamo-gawa”, the early days of Edo Kimekomi Ningyo saw that they are called “Yanagi Ningyo”, “Kamo Ningyo” or “Kamo-gawa Ningyo”.

In the middle of the Edo era, this skill came down to Edo, the current Tokyo, and it was mixed up with many other factors to be Edo Kimekomi Ningyo. After the movement, the doll creators in Kyoto disappeared and Tokyo became the main area of the culture.

How to make Edo Kimekomi Ningyo

The first Edo Kimekomi Ningyo (or Kamo Ningyo) was made by carving willow, but the later ones were also made by molding, which was conduce to the success of mass production of Edo Kimekomi Ningyo. Having said that, of course, the mold is made by the masters of Japanese dolls, so the value of Edo Kimekomi Ningyo is still intact.

The material of dolls in case of using such molds is called “Toso”, which is a kind of clay made from sawdust of paulownia and shofu-nori (wheat starch paste). This material is so light and durable. Thus, Edo Kimekomi Ningyo is easy to carry and life-lasting.

Of course, after molding the shape, the artisans paint some colors on the surface. Here, Kimekomi is done. They dress the doll in great wearing in the same way as it was done to the first Edo Kimekomi Ningyo with the help of some kinds of glue. So, you can say that what differentiates Edo Kimekomi Ningyo from other dolls is the way they are dressed. If their dress is fixed on the surface, it may well be Edo Kimekomi Ningyo.

This tells another thing: you can “unclothe” the dolls. (If you actually do that, it will require the historical technique to put the dress on them again, though; it’s not recommended.) This means that the shape of the body is the most important part for Edo Kimekomi Ningyo. When you watch Edo Kimekomi Ningyo, it’s more enjoyable to look at the body shape of the doll, which reflects the skill of the creator.

How to choose your favorite Edo Kimekomi Ningyo?

When you browse Edo Kimekomi Ningyo, you may well be surprised at the number of them. Thanks to mold, there are many dolls commercially available now, but how should we choose one from them?

Although mold is used, the last phase to finish the doll is mainly by hand, including painting and “Kimekomi”. Therefore, each of the dolls has different faces. Some may look smiling, and others may motherly. So, the first spot to look at when purchasing a doll is its face. Let’s choose your favorite one, “face to face”.

Of course, what they are wearing is also important. When you find their attire nice, that one can be your choice.

Other point to watch carefully is the story of the doll. As mentioned above, the completion of the culture of Japanese dolls is met in the Edo era, and this is because the era saw many cultures and entertainment were embedded into expression of creation of dolls. Therefore, the title (or caption) of dolls became much more “poetic” in the later era of Japan.

So, when you feel something special in a piece of Edo Kimekomi Ningyo, you should ask what the caption of the work and the meaning. If it’s really special, the doll must have its own name and story.

The current Edo Kimekomi Ningyo

Now, Edo Kimekomi Ningyo is not always a doll. The shape is sometimes a Japanese ball, mari, or an animal of Oriental Zodiac. For the ones of human shape, on the other hand, hina-dolls (which is traditional dolls to display on March 3, Hina-matsuri, in Japan) and Seven Deities of Good Fortune (which are 7 deities that Japanese people believe in as the herald of good fortune) are popular. Such dolls are also embodiment of Japanese culture, so they are perfect as the gift for your friends.

In addition to these commercial products, some people still make Edo Kimekomi Ningyo by themselves; they make their original and unique doll as an artist. One of such artists say that the artisans like him will disappear soon, for the younger manufacturers do the job separately without enough practice. This man also makes dolls for commercial availability but does all the procedures by himself, which add the taste of uniqueness to the products.

“We are striving to make the “one-of-a-kind” masterpiece, whose most important part is the idea. It’s therefore difficult and fun,” says he.


新版 東京の職人―技と誇りを伝える百人の匠たち
日本伝統工芸 鑑賞の手引
【日英対訳】日本の歴史100 100 Things on Japanese History

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Ryukyu Bingata

1. What is the “Ryukyu Bingata”?

The “Ryukyu Bingata (琉球の紅型)” is the dyed textiles(染物)often worn by noble classes in the late period of Ryukyu Kingdom, Okinawa. They were worn both in the females and the males (before adolescence). It is now recognized as one of the representatives of Japanese traditional dyed textiles(染物)or kimono, such as Kyo-Yuzen(京友禅), Kaga-Yuzen (加賀友禅), Edo-Komon (江戸小紋).
One of the characteristics that distinguishes “Ryukyu Bingata (琉球の紅型)” is the usage of a primary color (原色), such as bright yellow, rose red. Those are not observed in the kimono of main land of Japanese archipelago. The scholars have suggested that the reason of the high occurrence of yellow might relate to the close political relationships among Ryukyu Kingdom(琉球) and Chinese Empire(中国王朝) where the yellow was believed to be a color of superior power.
Dyeing of “Ryukyu Bingata (琉球の紅型)” is done by stencils(型付). Although stencils dyeing can be seen throughout the Japan those days, several designs originate to the topical regions are very unique, such as a hibiscus, okinawan lion, and banana.

2. History

The origin of “Ryukyu Bingata (琉球の紅型) “ is believed to be the prior to Ryukyu Kingdom, but it is still under the discussion. The time which “Ryukyu Bingata (琉球の紅型)” flourished in the kingdom was around the late period of Ryukyu kingdom around 18-19th when the invasion by Satsuma(薩摩), one of the strong referral federal domains of Edo Bakufu, happened. By that time the new manufacturing techniques were introduced to the Ryukyu Kingdom(琉球), and then this flourishment of “Ryukyu Bingata (琉球の紅型)” lasted until the abolition of Ryukyu kingdom alongside the Meiji Restoration.
The “Ryukyu Bingata (琉球の紅型)” were worn not only at the time of a court dance(宮廷舞踊)for the welcoming party of Chinese envoys (冊封使), but also it has been worn for purpose of divine protection(神のご加護)from Okinawan monstrous creatures such as Kijimuna(キジムナー).

3. The manufacture of “Ryukyu Bingata”

1). texture (下地づくり)
The stencils(型付) are placed on the cloth fabric, and then the whole cloth fabric is dyed by the glue. The glue is the mixture of glutinous rice, rice bran, and preservatives (lime). The places where stencils are covered would not be covered by this glue(糊付け). The purpose of gluing is to have dyeing line exactly same as stencils.
After placing the glue and peeling the stencils, the cloth fabric are stretched by several bamboo stick stretcher(伸子). Then the mung bean milk(豆汁)are dyed for avoiding the dye to spread for the next step.

2). Arrangement of colors(配色)
The next step after preparing cloth fabric will be dyeing arrangement of colors. Two brush are used. One is for a paintbrush used for coloring, and other is for a stenciling(刷り込む). Dyeing must be begun from brighter colors such as red and yellow to the darkish colors such as gray and blue.

3). Finishing(仕上げ)
After dyeing the portion of cloth fabric covered by brushes, the glue will be washed. After it dried, it will be “Ryukyu Bingata (琉球の紅型)” called shiroji-gata which means most of the cloth fabric has not dyed and white(白地型). When it needed to be yellow dyeing for empty space of the cloth fabric, it requires next step. Contrary to the dyeing stenciled portion, the dyeing the empty will be done by gluing that stenciled portion, so that stenciled portion dyed already will be protected and empty space of cloth fabric will be dyed again(下地塗り).

4. At the time of Ryukyu Kingdom

Compare to the present manufacturing of “Ryukyu Bingata”, the hereditary way of exclusive production (世襲) was more common at that time. It consisted one of the governmental branches, and craftsmen’s salary also came from Ryukyu Kingdom. Sometimes new designs of stencils were introduced court painter (宮廷画家)and Ukiyo-e hired by Ryukyu kingdom. As a gift to the Chinese Empire(中国王朝) and Edo Bakufu, Japan, the production of those extorted textiles were dyed under many restrictions.


外間正幸、岩宮武二(1966)『日本の工芸 別巻 琉球』淡交新社。
富山弘基 大野力(1971)『沖縄の伝統染織』徳間書店。

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Tokyo ginki(東京銀器)


What do you think of when it comes to precious metal? Maybe, the first comer is gold, and the second one silver. (Some people may well think of platinum, though.)

If you are looking for something like that, Edo-ginki is the perfect choice for you. Now, let’s delve into the beauty and history.


Gin and ki are silver and shape in Japanese respectively, and Tokyo is Tokyo (as it is). Therefore, Tokyo-ginki means Tokyo-silver-works. Yes, they are the Japanese masterpieces made of silver.

It may sound strange that Japan has specialty in that area, for silverware seems something for nobles in Europe in the Middle Ages. However, the history of silver in Japan can trace back to even the year 916 or possibly more and Japan was one of the biggest producing countries of silver. Tokyo-ginki is such a historical artifact.

What’s Tokyo-ginki?

In the Edo era of Japan, which is during 1603 to 1868, the artisans who dealt with silver were called “Shirogane-shi (silver master or master of silver, in English).

Their pieces were loved by many feudal lords in Japan. Many masterpieces were created then and many lords enjoyed the beauty. However, silver was popular not only in upper social class but also the other people. Historians have found that there was a law that bans wearing luxuries in 1789 in Japan, and this “luxuries” explicitly included silver; this suggests that silver was originally common among many people in the time.

In 1867, Paris held the world exhibition, where the Japanese silver works, such as silver teacups, were introduced. The Japanese silvers soon became sensational all over Europe for the unique and Japanesque shape, which was probably possible then because they made it manually. Tokyo-ginki and the technique to make them is a heritage from the era and now manufactured mainly in Tokyo, which used to be called Edo.

How to make Tokyo-ginki?

There are mainly 3 inherited methods to make Tokyo-ginki: The first one is Tan-kin, which is shaping by hitting silver. They hammer out the material and then turn the flattened silver into a particular shape, so the base of the piece becomes thin but the edge tends to be thick; the next one is Cho-kin, which is engraving and putting together with other metal. This way allows artisans to put many patterns on the surface, which the Europe people in the history loved (and probably still love); and the third one is Kiri-bame, which is making a slot or cut line and attaching the part of other metal into there by brazing. Of course, these 3 methods are combined to make one silver piece, like accessory and an art object, but the base is Tan-kin.

Hammering silver into a bowl takes 1 day, and if a teapot, it takes 3 days. One artisan says that making a fine teapot out of silver is the mere start as a professional silver master.

Of course, when it comes to hammering out, the hammer they use is really important. The real master of silver can tell if the hammer is suitable for the silver or not just by listening to the hitting sound.

Secret of the shine

Tokyo-ginki is really famous for the shine, which lasts very long. Why is it everlasting? Actually, there is a qualification for silver to be the material of Tokyo-ginki; it should be 92.5 % purity.

The Japan Mint classifies silver into 5 grades, 100% purity, 95%, 92.5%, 90% and 80%. The class of Tokyo-ginki is at least the third, but this never mars the elegance of this art; actually, silver is so soft that 100% purity is really fragile. Therefore, the artisan combined silver with other metal to make it much more durable.

On the other hand, ISO 9202 and JIS H6309 place 3 grades about quality of silver, 92.5% purity, 83.5% and 80%. In this criterion, the Tokyo-ginki belongs to the highest class.

By the way, even so, the silver of Tokyo-ginki sometimes tarnishes because of oxidization. In this case, put toothpaste on dry cotton and rub the surface lightly with it. After that, clean the surface with cloth, and the shine will come back.

How to distinguish Tokyo-ginki?

Now, you may worry about how to distinguish Tokyo-ginki from other silver works. Yes, it seems really difficult to tell them from the others without the profound knowledge — but don’t worry. Actually, the Association of Tokyo-ginki made an institution to certify Tokyo-ginki: the real Tokyo-ginki has a hallmark on it.

The hallmark is impressed to certify that the piece is authentic Tokyo-ginki and of high-quality silver, and this also helps many common people purchase safe silvers (bad metal affects your skin badly, you know).

Of course, due to this mark, Tokyo-ginki is getting more and more renowned as a brand. The more famous Tokyo-ginki becomes, the more trustworthy it gets. As getting more trustworthy, the brand will become more prestigious and so will the artisans.

The hallmark is also an embodiment of the pride of the artisans; every hallmark of Tokyo-ginki requires other mark of the artisan himself to clarify who made the piece. Therefore, they can’t make a lukewarm piece.

The current Tokyo-ginki

Nowadays, the popularity of Tokyo-ginki remains as it was in the Edo era and there are many articles like rings, pendants, cups, teapots, plates, vases and others. However, an artisan complains on the small number of customers. Why? He explains:

“It was after death of my father that I became finally a full-fledged artisan, and his pieces were all sold out while he was alive. Now, nothing of him is left, so I have to sell my own creations; however, one customer rarely comes twice. I know the reason. It’s because my father’s work was too perfect to break, so they don’t have to visit me for their new article. Tokyo-ginki is so durable…

“But now, there are brand new and modern pieces of Tokyo-ginki and I don’t want them to miss the new comers. I really wish they and you would visit me.”


新版 東京の職人―技と誇りを伝える百人の匠たち
日本伝統工芸 鑑賞の手引
【日英対訳】日本の歴史100 100 Things on Japanese History